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Equity and Justice

Law is the basic framework within which societies operate, a set of rules that cover actually all the aspects of our lives. The whole social structure rests on the cornerstones of human rights and principles of justice. They are the basic values that sustain humanity, allow a functioning democracy in the state, serve as a force for stability and economic prosperity. 

Lithuania is on a long and winding road to the rule of law. Actually the first nation in Europe to proceed with professional legislature and codification back in 1529 when the first Statuta Lituaniae was issued, the nation that together with Poland has drafted and proclaimed the first constitution in Europe back on May 3, 1791, Lithuania has spent almost the whole of the last century under authoritarian and totalitarian regimes where human rights had been negated. Creation of an independent and just legal system after the independence has been restored was an intriguing and challenging process culminating in re codification of the major part of the whole legal system - the Civil Code, the Civil Procedure Code, the Labor Code, the Criminal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, the Code on Execution of Penalties all passed in the years 2000-2002. Building of the system of the guarantees for human rights after the 50 years of a total negation of theirs has requested an essential political and intellectual effort. However the rule of law still remains an ideal and not a reality. Lithuania’s Criminal Code is probably the only code in Europe that does not provide for a possibility of parole for persons serving life sentences, the Code of Administrative Infringements (the only law in Lithuania that has been passed in the Soviet era and is still in effect) foresees deprivation of liberty for administrative infringements. At the same time social guarantees provided for the laws of Lithuania are widely considered to be excessive, therefore the Labor Code is undergoing a major reconsideration aimed to flexibility of labor market at the expense of labor law guarantees.

It is always necessary to keep in mind that law without a properly functioning institutional system to enforce it is a dead letter. The creation of institutional system of public administration in Lithuania is a process worth analyzing itself. And the structure of state mechanism does attract research attention. The very constitutional structure of the state is a rather specific one with the President, the Parliament and the Government holding political powers of equal weight and therefore a specific system of checks and balances manifests its operation and attracts social attention constantly. Then the issues of total popular distrust in the judicial system are a constant issue that has not changed in spite of many institutional reforms that the judiciary has gone through. A new municipal structure has come into being only in 2015 with directly elected mayors with disproportionally restricted competencies that place their dependence on support by the municipal councils is another issue that will certainly draw research attention.












Equality of Capabilities

Immigration and Internal Mobility

Racism and Xenophobia

Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance

Confiscation and Asset Recovery

Intergenerational Equity 

Free Trade and Human Rights

Rule of Law in Central Asia

Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union

Democratic Deficit

Right to Health Protection, Healthcare and Healthy Environment

Community and Stakeholder Involvement

Personalization of Public Services

Inter-institutional Relations in the European Union

Transparency and Integrity in Public Administration

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishments

Penal Policy

Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters

Matrimonial Law

Consumer Protection

Property Rights


Regulatory Authorities and Supervisory Agencies

Economic Analysis of Law


Employment, Family and Social Security

Privacy by Design
Dissenting Opinions in Courts European Public Order Entrepreneurship in Public Administration
Legal and Ethical Regulation of Biomedical Research Modernisation of Legal Institutions Patient Rights
The Right to Participate in the Governance of the State Legal Negotiations Right to Health Protection, Healthcare and Healthy Environment
Employment, Family and Social Security Constitutional Separation of Powers Execution of Custodial Sentences Policy Consultations with Civil Society
Compulsory Purchase  Legal Personalism  Regulation of Lobbying Activities Amicus Curiae
Right to Life Right to Physical and Mental Integrity General Rule of Equality Political Equality Rights
Public Interest Law Trust in Political and Legal Institutions Legislature of the European Union  Administrative Law
Labour Law Economic and Financial Criminal Law Legislative Process  Media and Entertainment Law 
Administration of Justice Procedural Justice Behavior and Social Image of Judges Criminal Law of the European Union
Rights of Children  Stakeholder Involvement Public Policy Modelling Privacy and Protection of Personal Data